Persuasive Writing Plan for Years 7-10

Image result for picture of persuasive writing

 Why is Persuasive Writing in Years 7-10 Important in the English Curriculum?

Persuasive Writing is part of the English curriculum for Years 7-10 and forms the basis for writing and analysing topics that students will go on to perfect in Years 11-12 as AOS2 Analysing and Presenting Argument.  An important aspect of good writing is to follow a process that will lead to understanding your topic, identifying the important points in your main contention and stating your opinion clearly and assertively in body paragraphs.

The best structure for an essay is a straight forward one:

  1. Introduction = to introduce the issue / state the main contention / introduce supporting reasons that will be covered in the essay
  2. Body paragraphs = each paragraph should use the TEEL structure and start with the most important reason in your supporting reasons and follow with next reason in the next body paragraph (at least 3-4 good body paragraphs)
  3. Rebuttal = choose one of the most important reasons that are the opposite view point to your main contention and point out the errors in the argument
  4. Conclusion = sums up your argument and refers your reader back to the topic covered in your main contention.  Do not bring up new evidence or develop an opinion contrary to your main contention otherwise you might contradict yourself.

TEEL – What is it?

Teachers stress all throughout Years 7-10 the correct structure for an essay is to use TEEL for your body paragraphs which enables students to have a clear focus in their essay writing.

T = Topic sentence

E = Evidence/Examples (quotes)

E = Explanation

L = Link

So lets look at a Sample Persuasive Essay Topic and the Process needed to complete the essay.

Write a persuasive essay on this topic: Do you think secondary school students should work part-time?

 Image result for picture of students working at part time jobThe Process:

  1. Research your information = Many secondary school students work part-time after school. Studies have shown that students can work up to 10 hours a week without affecting their school work.  However, if they exceed these hours their school work may suffer.
  2. The questions are =? Does combining school and part-time work affect school work and post-school outcomes?
  3. Brainstorm your ideas using the fish-bone diagram, think of facts, consequences and solutions, decide on your main contention
  4. List points for and against to make sense of which side the arguments fall
  5. Identify appropriate examples grouping them in common themes, think about what is logical evidence
  6. Decide which is the most persuasive order to present your topic sentences, start with the most important reason
  7. Summarise your contention, write your introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion.

Have a look at my Draft Plan for answering the persuasive topic:


Draft Plan
What is the issue? Much debate has been raised by parents and teachers questioning whether combining school and part-time work affects secondary students’ school work and post-school outcomes.
Defining key terms Studies from the National Centre for Vocational Education have shown that students can work up to 10 hours a week without affecting their school work.  However, if they exceed these hours their school work may suffer.
Main Contention Each student who chooses to work part-time has a unique set of circumstances and reasons for wanting to work.  Some students need to work part-time to help support their family.  Provided that the part-time work hours are not excessive, students can benefit from their working experience.  However, it is important to balance school commitments and part-time work so that working does not affect future post-school outcomes.
Supporting Reasons Research from the National Centre for Vocational Education has shown that students can work up to 10 hours a week without affecting their school work.  Working part-time helps students to achieve personal goals and can offer a break from school work.  Part-time work gives students greater financial independence to earn their own money to pay for their clothes and other items that they would have asked their parents to provide.  More importantly, part-time work can allow students real world experience dealing with people, customers, their boss, time management and financial responsibility which gives them confidence in future.  Working part-time also enables students to decide what type of job they want to do as a future career further motivating them to get better grades at school in order to gain a high ATAR for a university degree.
Rebuttal The Bureau of Labour Statistics in the US suggests that students who held a job in high school spent 49 minutes less on their homework than on the days they worked.  The research showed that if students spent 30 minutes more on homework, say studying maths, they could increase their maths ability by 2 grades higher.  Students who work more than 10 hours per week part-time can lead to students falling asleep in class because of long work shifts the night before.  The result is that students cannot keep up with school assignments on time and then their grades inevitably suffer.  The affect of working more than 10 hours part-time can lead to students falling so far behind their school commitments that they consider dropping out of school.  The result of this action is that their post-school future is in jeopardy.
Summing up sentences It is imperative that secondary school students should carefully consider their options before taking on part-time work.  It should be noted that not all students’ circumstances are the same.  However, it is important to balance school commitments and part-time work so that working does not affect future post-school outcomes.  Moreover, provided the hours are not excessive, students can benefit from their part-time working experience.


Tips on Oral Presentations for English Years 9-12

 JFK Giving Speech

A few tips on writing your speech:

  • Have a CAPTIVATING introduction sentence; use a short, clear and powerful sentence. You can even ask a rhetorical question of your audience to make them think right at the start.
  • RELATE to your audience so that it keeps them interested so they actually WANT to listen.
  • If you are taking on a persona, firstly study and UNDERSTAND your character. (A persona is how you present your speech, ie. in a friendly voice, a business type strictly formal speech or using lots of colloquial phrases).
  • Don’t forget your persuasive techniques. Use repetition and rhetorical questions, emotive language and inclusive language.
  • Remember that you are writing a SPEECH, not an essay. Instill your oral with emotion, varied tone and sentence lengths.

A few tips on your performance:

Memorise your speech

Always remember that practice makes perfect. Practice as much as possible; in front of anyone and everyone including yourself (use a mirror). Keep practicing until you can recite it.

As for cue cards, use dot points. Don’t just copy and paste whole sentences onto cue cards or else you’ll rely on them too much. Not to mention that it’ll be hard finding out where you are in the middle of your speech. Use “trigger words” so that if you forget your next point, you have something there.

Use your Powerpoint presentation to best advantage. Keep the images relevant to your speech. Have the images not too “busy” so that the audience are looking attentively at the screen and forget to listen to your speech. Make sure the presentation is on mouse click to the next slide or timed so you don’t have to fiddle around with the computer, but remember to keep talking.

But most importantly, if you mess up, keep going. Even if you screw up a word or suddenly forget your next point, just take a breath, correct yourself, and keep going. Do not giggle. If your friends make you laugh, don’t look at them.

Control your voice

Do not be monotone. Give it some energy; be pumped but not “I-just-downed-5-cans-of-Red Bull” pumped. Give it as much energy as it is appropriate for your speech. As you transition through various intense emotions such as anger, happiness and shock, your performance should reflect it. This is achieved in both your tone and your body language (moving around, not jumping around as that will distract from what you are trying to say).

Speak as if you believe in your contention – with passion. If you sound confident, then your audience will think, ‘wow, they sure know what they’re talking about’. Remember, confidence is the key.

Don’t rush through your speech and speak at a million kilometers an hour – or even worse; skipping half of your speech because you just want to get the hell out of there. Also, speak so that the teacher can actually hear you. More likely than not, they’ll be sitting somewhere near the back of the room. Don’t be “too quiet” master the art/power of projecting your voice. It actually does make a huge difference.

Be aware of your actions

Don’t just stand like a statue in one spot. Think about real life – do you know anyone that stands completely and utterly still when talking to you? Make sure you look around the room; you’re addressing everyone, not just one person. Don’t stare at your teacher; it freaks them out. You don’t even have to look at a specific place. Start off looking at the back wall… then as you go through the speech, naturally turn from one back corner of the room to the other. Also, try not to look down because it will make you mumble and be hard to understand or hear. Don’t try to look at your cue cards while they’re right up next to your body. Move it out when you need to have a GLANCE at them then go back to the audience.

Always make sure that you face the audience.

Use some natural hand gestures they don’t hurt either!

Take some long, deep breaths before you go on and tell yourself that you can do it!

How to Effectively Annotate Texts

 Image result for pictures of writing booksWhy Annotate Your Texts in Studying English?

Annotating texts is a powerful step in getting to know your text and optimising your essay responses. Keep in mind as a reader and annotator 2 important questions:

  1. “What is the author saying?
  2. How are they constructing their meaning/values in their text?”

Listed below are some helpful tips in learning how to annotate:

A Definition: To annotate means to add notes to a text where you provide extra comments or explanations (usually in the margins of the book).

Break up the text by using post flags to distinguish sections or chapters

Some texts are large and sections or chapters are not easy to recognise but a good way to identify the sections is to use post flags to break up the text. This will make scanning the book much easier later when you are searching for a specific passage for an essay.

Think of your text as a colouring book

One way is to use different coloured highlighters for different themes. Think of it as creating a trail for you to follow throughout the book. If you don’t like using highlighters, another simple way is to use coloured post flags to highlight certain pages where you can underline the themes with explanations at the top of the page.

Circle new vocabulary

Look it up and then write their definitions next to the word. Using higher level metalanguage in your essays is going to help to gain better marks.

Write notes in the margins or at the top of pages

Here you can summarise the chapters at the top of the page and then other significant points of a passage as you read through the text.

What are the best items to annotate?

  • Character descriptions & dialogues significant to the plot/character development
  • Historical, cultural, social and natural contexts relevant to understanding the text
  • Structure of the text, narrative voice/viewpoint, implications for the plot & characters
  • Themes, motifs & symbols that are connected to characters & plot and how these represent ideas or concepts that show the author’s values and meaning
  • Literary devices such as metaphors, similes and foreshadowing that show how the author constructs meaning and structure of the text
  • Plot changes, major events and how they affect characters and meaning of the text


Parts of Speech Table

Image result for pictures of the contexts in vce english

Parts of Speech Table

For a quick Grammar Ready Reference, please see a summary of the 8 Parts of Speech Table below:-

Part of Speech Function or “job” Example Words Example Sentences
Verb action   or state (to)   be, have, do, like, work, sing, can, must   is a great web site. I like this site.
Noun thing   or person pen,   dog, work, music, town, London, teacher, John This   is my dog. He lives in my house. We live in London.
Adjective describes   a noun a/an,   the, 69, some, good, big, red, well, interesting My   dog is big. I like big dogs.
Adverb describes   a verb, adjective or adverb quickly,   silently, well, badly, very, really My   dog eats quickly. When he is very hungry, he eats really   quickly.
Pronoun replaces   a noun I,   you, he, she, some Tara   is Indian. She is beautiful.
Preposition links   a noun to another word to,   at, after, on, but We   went to school on Monday.
Conjunction joins   clauses or sentences or words and,   but, when I   like dogs and I like cats. I like cats and dogs. I like dogs but   I don’t like cats.
Interjection short   exclamation, sometimes inserted into a sentence oh!,   ouch!, hi!, well Ouch! That hurts! Hi! How are   you? Well, I don’t know.


Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.

Poetry Analysis Step by Step

Why Read Poems?

Some people say they don’t like poetry, it’s boring or they don’t understand it.  I think poetry is more like a song, the more you hear it the more you like it.  The words are very similar to poetry; in fact we can break down the verses of songs and see the meaning as poetry.

Poetry doesn’t have to be boring; it can also be funny like limericks.

Start with a Step by Step Analysis

Have a look at this Poetry Analysis Step by Step Flow Chart in PowerPoint to show you the way to read and understand a poem.  Follow it below as well with a full explanation of the Poetry Analysis Step by Step.

Poetry Analysis flow chart

1. Read a poem 2 or 3 times

Each time you read a poem you notice different things

When you read the poem a second time you pick up on ideas and themes that you may have missed the first time you read it.  Also the poet can have ideas hidden just below the surface of the words and as you read it again, the new ideas can jump out.

2. Paraphrase the poem by stanza next to the original text

Writing it in your own words is a good idea to make sense of the poem, so you know what it means in simple terms

Stanza means the verses of the poem just like a song

How the poet organises the stanzas in a poem is often an important aspect of the poem’s structure.  Nothing in a poem is by accident.  Poets choose their words carefully as well as giving careful thought to the form and layout of the poem.  You should ask yourself why the poet has done this or that because there will be a reason and there is an effect for everything in a poem.

3. Answer the 5 W’s

Who? Who is the poet referring to?

What? What is the poem about?

Why? Why is the poet writing about it?

When? When is the poem set, the time period?

Where? Where is the poem, the place the poet is taking about, the setting?

4. Identify the theme, message or topic

What is the poet trying to say? What is the poet’s message in the poem?

What is the point? Is the poet trying to make a specific point in the poem?

5. Identify and Highlight Examples of Literary Techniques


Definition: Simile is when you compare two nouns (persons, places or things) that are unlike, with “like” or “as.” “The water is like the sun.”  “The water is like the sun” is an example of simile because water and the sun have little in common, and yet they’re being compared to one another. The “is” is also part of what makes this stanza an example of simile. “The rain falls like the sun,rising upon the mountains.”


When something is described in terms of something else, ‘her eyes are the stars in the sky’ is a metaphor as one thing her eyes is being described in terms of another thing the stars. Metaphors are comparisons that show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in one important way. Metaphors are a way to describe something. Authors use them to make their writing more interesting or entertaining. Unlike similes that use the words “as” or “like” to make a comparison, metaphors state that something is something else.


Poets use words to create images in your mind.


This is the repetition of a consonant sound in the words.  For example slippery slithering snake is alliteration.


This is where human qualities or emotions are given to non human things.  The wind howled in agony all day.  He gazed at the angry sea.


The overall mood of the poem, the emotions can be sad, optimistic, solemn.

Point of View

From what point of view is the poet writing.

Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.


What is Metalanguage in English?

What is Metalanguage in English?

This is a question many students ask.  They see it on criteria sheets for assessment tasks but never really understand the term or how it is used.

The Answer is:

Metalanguage in English is a language that describes language

One of the key skills required by students in VCE is using ‘appropriate metalanguage to discuss and analyse [your] own and others’ authorial choices’. Metalanguage is simply the words used to describe the language choices authors have made, and the choices you have made about your own writing.

I have put together a list of metalanguage terms with an explanation of each that you might find useful when asked to describe language used in your set texts.  Once you read through this list I am sure you will already know many of the terms mentioned below:

Allegory: Simply put, it’s a story in which the characters or  incidents symbolise key ideas that are usually ethical. Allegory is usually used to describe longer versions of the ‘fable’ form.

Ambiguity: Double meaning, often used deliberately by authors.

Antagonist: The character who sets himself or herself against the protagonist.

Anti-climax: A sudden ‘descent’ in excitement or effect, sometimes deliberately used by authors.

Audience: The intended readership for this piece of writing. Is it for an adult audience? A specialist audience who would understand the technical terms? A younger audience?

Author: The creator of a text.

Autobiography: The story of a person’s life, usually written by that same person. Sometimes you might talk of a story or novel having ‘autobiographical elements’ – pieces of personal history made into the creative work. Romulus My Father, is autobiographical.

Character: A person in a novel, short story or play.  Can be either major or minor characters.

Characterisation: The writer’s skill in creating realistic or effective sounding characters.

Cliché: An over-used or outworn phrase that has lost its effectiveness.

Climax: The point of greatest intensity in a narrative.

Context: The historical, social and cultural environment in which the narrative is set, such as a particular country during a war.

Counterplot: A sub-plot which contrasts with the main plot, often used to add meaning to the main plot.

Crisis Point: A point of significant conflict or tension.

Dialogue: Conversation between characters in a novel or story.

Dramatic conventions: Departures from reality which the audience is used to accepting when watching a play.

Epigraph: A short quote or statement, usually at the start of a book or chapter.

Epilogue: A short final section of a novel or play.

Fable: A short narrative in which some moral truth is shown through a story.

Figurative language: The opposite of literal language, figurative language is the language of imagination, and it makes demands of the reader to understand the meaning.

Flash-back:  A very common technique in film, but also in novels where the narrative returns suddenly to an earlier time in the story.

Form: The overall format of your piece of writing: short story, poem, blog entry, film script etc. Each form has a general set of expectations and conventions that have developed over time.

Genre: The ‘kind’ or ‘type’ of writing. The style within the form; ‘detective fiction’, ‘love poetry’. Genres often have certain conventions or expectations which you can follow, or sometimes break with, to great effect. Famous genres include the detective fiction genre, the romance genre and the gothic genre.

Idiom: The natural speech of the person being represented.

Imagery: Images are pictures in words, a common feature of poetry. Similes (‘the moon was sailing across the night sky like a balloon’) and metaphors (‘the moon was a balloon sailing across the night sky’) are typical of how images are constructed.

Indirect speech: The reporting, in a story or novel, of what someone else has said.

Irony: A figure of speech in which the meaning is the opposite of what is spoken.

Jargon: Technical or difficult language specific to a profession or sub-culture.

Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a comparison is made between two things by stating one as the other.

Monologue: A speech by one person in a play; think of Hamlet’s ‘To be or not to be’ speech.

Montage: A dramatic effect built up by a series of short scenes or impressions, often in apparently random order where the effect is more important than the content of each scene.

Narrative: Simply put: a story. The events occur in the order they appear.

Narrative perspective: The source of the story telling, the way the story is told.

Narrator: The person or ‘voice’ that tells the story.

Orientation: The moment at which the story begins.  For example a character has just made a discovery, or a shipwreck survivor has just made it to shore.

Person: The authorial perspective, first person ‘I’, second person ‘you’, or third person ‘she/he/they.

Personification: Giving human qualities to non-human objects such as animals, the sea, the wind, etc.

Plot: The framework of the story and the conscious arrangement of its events.

Point of view: Is this piece of writing told from a particular perspective or from the point of a view of a character with unique views of their own?

Prologue: Literally, a ‘before speech’, a short speech or introduction before the main story begins.

Prose: The opposite of poetry, prose is direct expression without rhyme and with no regular rhythm. Almost all novels are written in prose.

Protagonist: The main character in a narrative.

Pun: A play on words where a word is used in two senses.

Purpose: Often, this might be more about multiple purposes, but revolves around what this piece is trying to do: to persuade, to inform, to record and document, or to make the reader feel something specific?

Register: The variety and scope of language related to a specific type of communication setting, such as a formal register, or in the register of educational discourse.

Resolution: The section in which conflict is resolved.

Rhetorical Question: A question put for effect, that requires no answer, and expects none.

Setting: Where a novel or play takes place, often a real or historical place (the play A Man for All Seasons is set in historical England) but it may be imaginative (Nineteen Eighty- Four is set in an imaginary London of the future).

Stage direction: An instruction or explanation by the playwright as to how the play should be staged, but sometimes more than this to involve a description of the intended mood or a character’s feelings. Arthur Miller uses long and detailed stage directions in The Crucible.

Style: The overall direction and voice of the piece; how the writer says things. It might be in a ‘realistic’ style, an ‘exaggerated’ style, etc.

Structure: The way the elements of the text are arranged.  The text may happen chronologically, in parallel or move backwards and forward in time using flash-backs and/or flash-forwards.

Sub-plot: A minor or secondary story underneath the main story, very often paralleling the main story in some way.

Symbolism: The use of something simple and concrete to represent much more complex ideas or concepts. In Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, a glass paperweight comes to symbolize something about the beauty and fragility of the past.

Tense: Is the piece set in the past, present or future? Present tense might be something like, ‘I am walking along the beach. The sun is shining.’

Tone: The sound of a voice at specific moments in the piece of writing. Of course this will change through a piece, but if you are striving for a particular or specific tone at a particular point it might be worth saying so. You will also need to comment on the tone of a piece of writing in your language analysis tasks.

Theme: A major issue running through and explored by the text, such as friendship or growing up.

Tragedy: A representation, often in plays, of a human conflict ending in defeat and suffering, often due to some weakness or flaw in the character of the main tragic ‘hero’.

Turning Point: A point at which decisive change occurs.

Values: Qualities that the author and/or characters believe are important, such as loyalty and integrity.

Voice: The overall sound of the writing.

World View: The author’s overall view of the world as illustrated by the text.  For example the author may portray the world and human beings as doomed or capable of improvement or redemption.  In Girl with a Pearl Earring, the world view presented is that choices made in life when young often determine people’s future directions and that those choices can be limited by historical context, gender and class.

Use the list above for describing the metalanguage of novels and short stories and how the language constructs meaning for the reader in these texts.

Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.









Adjective Word Bank for Creative Writing

Why Use an Adjective Word Bank for Creative Writing?

An Adjective Word Bank is especially useful to help you build a more advanced vocabulary for creative writing tasks.  Teachers are always looking to boost the vocabulary of their students, and by learning new adjectives, students can become more effective writers and speakers.

List of Adjectives for your Word Bank

Below is a short adjective word bank that can get you started on your way to building your own adjective list.  These words can be used to describe feelings and appearances of objects and can make it easy to describe yourself, your surroundings, and your favourite things.  You can use this list to build your own adjective word bank, adding words you like and removing words you do not, replacing them with even more descriptive words.  By keeping this adjective word bank list on your desk as you write, you can refer to it and learn to add more descriptive words into your writing.

adorable adventurous aggressive agreeable
alive amused angry alert
annoying anxious arrogant ashamed
attractive average awful bad
beautiful better bewildered black
bloody blue blue-eyed blushing
bored brainy brave breakable
bright busy calm careful
cautious charming cheerful clean
clear clever cloudy clumsy
colourful combative comfortable concerned
condemned confused cooperative courageous
crazy creepy crowded cruel
curious cute dangerous dark
dead defeated defiant delightful
depressed determined different difficult
disgusted distinct disturbed dizzy
doubtful drab dull eager
easy elated elegant embarrassed
enchanting encouraging energetic enthusiastic
envious evil excited expensive
exuberant fair faithful famous
fancy fantastic fierce filthy
fine foolish fragile frail
frantic friendly frightened funny
gentle gifted glamorous gleaming
glorious good gorgeous graceful
grieving grotesque grumpy handsome
happy healthy helpful helpless
hilarious homeless homely horrible
hungry hurt ill important
impossible inexpensive innocent inquisitive
itchy jealous jittery jolly
joyous kind lazy light
lively lonely long lovely
lucky magnificent misty modern
motionless muddy mushy mysterious
nasty naughty nervous nice
nutty obedient obnoxious odd
old-fashioned open outrageous outstanding
panicky perfect plain pleasant
poised poor powerful precious
prickly proud puzzled quaint
real relieved repulsive rich
scary selfish shiny shy
silly sleepy smiling smoggy
sore sparkling splendid spotless
stormy strange stupid successful
super talented tame tender
tense terrible testy thankful
thoughtful thoughtless tired tough
troubled ugliest ugly uninterested
unsightly unusual upset uptight
vast victorious vivacious wandering
weary wicked wide-eyed wild
witty worrisome worried wrong
zany zealous

Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.



What is Genre?

You may have heard the word genre before at school or have seen it written somewhere.

A definition of genre is a style of text or written language where each piece has a purpose (what are we writing for) and an audience (who are we writing for).

There are two types of Genres – Literary Type and Non Literary Type Genres:

  1. Literary Type Genres – are written to entertain
  2. Non-Literary Type Genres – are written to inform

1.        Literary Type Genres:

Personal Recount: a personal recount is basically a retelling or recounting of events that have happened. You can write a recount after a special event or day, like what you did on Australia Day; after an excursion or field trip; or after the holidays. The basic outline of a recount includes -:

  • Orientation: when and where it happened and who was there
  • Sequence of Events: tells about what happened in the order they happened
  • Ending: tells how the experience ended and gives a personal opinion of events

In a personal recount there is the use of verbs, describing events and sentence joining words like after, then, next and that.

 Narratives: a narrative is basically a story told based on true events or the imagination. The outline or structure of a narrative includes -:

  • Orientation – beginning of the story, introduces who the main characters are and sets the scene, describing where and when the story takes place.
  • Complication/Problem – something goes wrong or a problem arises. As in most stories you read, there is something that happens to one of the main characters. Here you can write information building up to and describing this problem or complication.
  • Resolution – problem or complication is solved. This can be a good or bad resolution. The resolution also includes the ending of the story – tying up of loose ends.

There are a number of narrative styles that you can develop to include short stories, mysteries, adventures, plays and fairy tales.

Poetry: Poetry can include rhyming verse, ballads, songs, haiku etc

2.     Non Literary Type Genres These can be broken down into transactional, procedural, report and expository type genres.

Transactional: these include greetings, invitations, apologies, introductions, vote of thanks, telephone conversations, personal letters and advertisements.

Procedural: include instructions, lists, recipes, science experiments and rules for games.

Directions: these can be written or spoken. Directions need to include:

  • Goal: where you want to go
  • Steps: the steps needed to get to your goal

Instructions: Instructions are used to make or do something. Instructions include recipes and science experiments and includes the following structure:

  • Goal: what you want to achieve
  • Materials/Ingredients: list what you will need to achieve your goal
  • Steps: sequence the steps needed.

Instructions often include many action verbs and are written in present tense.

Report: includes information reports, book reports, descriptions and news reports.

Information Reports: Information reports at school are mainly written to give information about either animals, plants or places. The structure needed in an information report includes –

  • Title – what you are writing about
  • Introduction – give a description or definition about the topic
  • Body – this can be broken down into categories – each having a sub-heading
  • Illustrations, photos and diagrams – to help describe the topic
  • Conclusion
  • Glossary – can include a list of words that are particular to the topic and may need defining.

Expository: type genres include explanations and display advertisements.

Explanations: are written to explain how and why things are. The basic structure for an explanation includes:

  • Title – a how or why statement or question
  • A Basic Statement – a basic definition about the title topic
  • Explanation – explains in logical steps the statement or question process as in the title.

Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.


Grammar Guide for Students

A Grammar Guide for Students who find ‘Grammar’ Difficult to Understand

‘Grammar’ is not the scariest word in the English language.  It is not difficult either.  Your starting point is to use my Grammar Guide for Students to work through the main nine parts of speech.  Once you know the main nine parts of speech you have the Metalanguage you need to discuss your work grammatically.  Look at the nine parts of speech first and then follow on to combine that knowledge when you put words together to form sentences.

There are Nine parts of Speech:

  1.  Noun = Definition: The name of a person, place, animal, thing, quality or condition.  There are 4 types of nouns: (1) proper noun = always begin with a capital letter and name people, places and titles eg. Mr Jones, Melbourne.  (2) common noun = name general things around you eg. trees.  (3) collective nouns = name groups of people or collections of things eg. choir.  (4) abstract nouns = name emotions, states of being, qualities eg. love.
  2. Pronoun = Definition: A word that takes the place of a noun.  There are 2 main types of pronouns:  (1) personal pronouns = I, me, he, she, we, they, them.  (2) possessive pronouns = mine, my, his, hers, ours, theirs.
  3. Adjective = Definition: A word that adds meaning to a noun or pronoun eg. horrible Harold.
  4. Verb = Definition: doing, being and having words eg. jump, have, own.  Verbs made up of one word are called main verbs.  Verbs made up of two or more words are called complex or compound verbs eg. was reported.  Auxiliary verbs are am, are, is, was, were, being, would, may, might, must, had, can, could, shall, should, will, has, have did, does, do and been.
  5. Adverb = Definition: A word that adds meaning to a verb (or an adjective or another adverb) eg. slowly compose, run fast.
  6. Preposition = Definition: A word that links nouns and pronouns to another word in a sentence eg. to, over, underneath, across, beside, with, in, on, above, after, between.
  7. Conjunction = Definition: A word that connects or links various words or groups of words eg. because, since, although, whenever, and.
  8. Interjection = Definition: A word that expresses a feeling or attitude but has no grammatical function eg. great, cool, hey, wow.
  9. Article = Definition: There are two types of articles:  (1) indefinite article = a, an.  (2) definite article = the.

What are Sentences and Clauses in Grammar?

  1. A simple sentence in English is a group of words that has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.  A simple sentence has one clause beginning with a noun group called the subject.  The subject is the person or thing that the sentence is about.  This is followed by a verb group, which tells you what the subject is doing, or describes the subject’s situation.
  2. The verb group may be followed by another noun group, which is called the object.  The object is the person or thing affected by the action or situation.  After link verbs like ‘be’, ‘become’, ‘feel’ and ‘seem’, the verb group may be followed by a noun group or an adjective, called a complement.  The complement tells you more about the subject.
  3. The verb group, the object, or the complement can be followed by an adverb or a prepositional phrase, called an adverbial.  The adverbial tells you more about the action or situation, for example how, when, or where it happens.  Adverbials are also called adjuncts.
  4. A compound sentence has two or more main clauses, ie. clauses which are equally important.  You join them with ‘and’, ‘but’ and ‘or’.
  5. A complex sentence contains a subordinate clause and at least one main clause.  A subordinate clause gives information about a main clause, and is introduced by a conjunction such as ‘because’, ‘if’, ‘that’, or a ‘wh’ word eg. ‘who’.  Subordinate clauses can come before, after, or inside the main clause.

What is the Correct Word Order in a Sentence?

Using the correct word order is important in English because word order can change meaning.  The normal word order in an English sentence is as follows:

(1)Subject:We (2)Verb:watched (3)Object:a video (3)Place:at home (4)Time:last night

Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.



Word Choices

Word Choices are Important

Many students over-use simple words like bad, good, big, happy, nice, said, silly and many other words in essays.  There are alternative word choices to consider rather than the commonly over-used words.  The alternative word choices will give you more scope to develop your essay writing skills, stop you repeating the same simple words, and gain A+ for English.  The alternative word choices list below is similar to looking up words using the Thesaurus but I have done the work for you.

Here are Some Alternative Word Choices you can use in your essays:

  1. Bad is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: abominable / beastly / brutal / cruel / corrupt / detestable / disgusting / disobedient / evil / false / horrible / horrid / ill-behaved / malevolent / nasty / naughty / objectionable / rotten / unworthy / vicious / vile / wicked
  2. Big is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: ample / bloated / broad / bulky / capacious / colossal / considerable / corpulent / deep / cumbersome / enormous / extended / extensive / full / giant / gigantic / grand / great / huge / immense / inflated / large / lengthy / lofty / long / magnificent / mammoth / massive / mighty / spacious / stout / swollen / substantial / sizeable / significant / towering / important / vast / wide / whopping
  3. Scared is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: afraid / alarmed / anxious / apprehensive / cowardly / concerned / fretful / fearful / dismayed / distressed / nervous / panicky / startled / terrified / terror-stricken / timid / troubled / worried
  4. Good is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: able / accomplished / agreeable / beneficial / blameless / benevolent / capable / clever / competent / decent / delightful / enjoyable / excellent / fine / first-class / great / healthy / helpful / high quality / honest / just / moral / noble / pious / pleasant / pleasing / pure / reliable / respectable / safe / satisfactory / satisfying / serviceable / skilful / sound / splendid / suitable / superior / talented / true / trustworthy / upright / useful / valid / valuable / virtuous / worthy
  5. Happy is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: blissful / bright / cheerful / cherry / delighted / elated / exultant / ecstatic / content / contented / glad / gleeful / gratified / high-spirited / jovial / joyful / pleased
  6. Nice is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: amiable / attractive / beautiful / captivating / charming / comely / dainty / delicious / pleasant / good / kind / polite / fine / lovely / neat / pretty / tasteful / tasty / tidy / trim
  7. Said is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: accused / addressed / admitted / advised / agreed / alleged / announced / apologised / appealed / argued / asked / babbled / began / begged / believed / bellowed / blustered / bragged / breathed / cautioned / chuckled / commenced / complained / confessed / confided / congratulated / cried / decided / declared / groaned / denied / disputed / enquired / exclaimed / explained / hissed / howled / mumbled / murmured / objectived / praised / promised / proposal / protested / questioned / reasoned / recalled / rejoined / remarked / repeated / replied / revealed / roared / scoffed / scolded / screamed / screeched / shouted / shrieked / snapped / snarled / sniggered / snorted / sobbed / spoke / stammered / stated / stuttered / supposed / taunted / thundered / understood / wailed / warned / wept / wheezed / whined / whinged / whispered / yawned / yelled
  8. Silly is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: absurd / brainless / cretinous / foolish / idiotic / impractical / inane / laughable / ludicrous / moronic / ridiculous / stupid / unwise
  9. Small is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: brief / dwarfish / little / marginal / minimal / meagre / miniscule / minute / paltry / petty / scanty / short / shrivelled / shrunken / slight / slim / stunted / squat / thin / tiny / trifling / trivial
  10. Surprised is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: amazed / astonished / astounded / bewildered / confused / dazed / dumfounded / flabbergasted / overwhelmed / shocked / staggered / startled / stunned / taken aback

Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.