Creating Texts Framework Writing About Personal Journeys AOS2 Unit 3 Year 12 VCE

Unit 3 AOS 2 Creating Texts Assessment = 2 Essays on the texts in consideration of audience, purpose, and form 20 marks each & Commentary on reflecting on writing process

Framework Writing about personal journeys – the texts consist of personal development as individuals have insights into their own experiences, milestones, struggles and their differences.

Within each framework there are 4 mentor texts for study:

  1. ‘The Dangers of a Single Story’ (Ted Talk) by Chimamanda Ngozu Adichie
  2. ‘Bidngen’ by Maya Hodge
  3. ‘The Red Plastic Chair is a Vietnamese Cultural Institution and My Anchor’ by Amy Duong
  4. ‘Walter’s speech’ (part 1, The Inheritance) by Matthew Lopez

Framework’s Task about Personal Journeys

The mentor texts consist of explorations of life leading into discussions about story telling. They provide a springboard for students to consider personal milestones and epiphanies or the effects of key events on your life. The texts give students the ability to draw on specific perspectives the authors develop and then use your own thoughts about personal journeys. You may want to consider the impacts of change / identity / future goals and how you have negotiated these changes that have led to life leading consequences.

Your task is to draw on the mentor texts as well as complementary texts to explore ideas and record your thoughts in a journal. You will experiment with texts, modes, writing styles and narrative perspectives. The mode of delivery of your piece will impact on your purpose and the way you convey your ideas. You must workshop and refine your pieces, taking into account contextual factors such as your audience and purpose. You will explore 4 types of writing – to express / explain / reflect or argue. You will then reflect upon your authorial choices and language features in a reflective commentary.

The 4 Mentor Texts

The mentor texts vary in tone and style. Lopez’s monologue is a heartwarming discussion about responses to the AIDs crisis during the 1980’s. Adichie’s TED Talk revolves around the nature of stereotypes and their impact upon relationships and one’s ability to control the dominant narrative. Hodge and Duong use a reflective tone and real-life anecdotes to explore their place in the family and in their physical and social environment. The texts all have an auto-biographical slant and suggest that the younger generation can learn about the journeys of trailblazers or of ancestors.

The Mentor Texts – A Brief Summary

‘The Dangers of a Single Story’ = Chimamanda Ngozu Adichie includes personal recounts about her migration experience with the perspective of a Nigerian student at an American University as the springboard for her views about stories and stereotypes. Adichie draws attention to the harmful nature of stereotypes that reduce people and their experiences to a ‘single’ flat-lined story. Adichie realises that her American ‘roommate’ is perpetuating the ‘single’ story about Africans which limits and defines their relationship as one of difference. Likewise, one of her professors does not recognise her story of middle-class professional privilege as an ‘authentic’ African story. She suggests that younger generations can learn about journeys of trailblazers or of ancestors. She refers to key African authors like Chinua Achebe who challenged European narratives of power and superiority and explored the arrogance and hypocrisy of colonial stories. Adichie broadens her narratives to criticise a political and patriarchal system that exploits and suppresses women. She considers women are devalued, reduced to sexual chattels, and conditioned to behave in submissive ways. In her multi-layered experience Adichie explores in her stories which broaden the African experience and focus on culture, courage, resilience, despair, change and dysfunction.

‘Bidngen’ = Maya Hodge includes personal recounts about her life experience with the perspective of being a Lardil person growing up on the outskirts of Mildura and her battles with racism. The story ‘bidngen’ means women and consists of 8 vignettes of Lardil women with generational racism that festers and leaves deep scars. Like Adichie, Hodge also draws attention to the harmful nature of stereotypes that reduce people and their experiences to a ‘single’ flat-lined story. She contends that to deny the diversity and enrichment of multiple stories is to limit the depth of one’s experiences and to hem people in. It is often to the power-broker’s advantage and occurs at the expense, and to the detriment of, the other. Her story focus is on the ‘Lardil girl’ and her journey as a marginalised Aborigine, whose struggle with adversity is ‘white-washed’ and her struggles for social acceptance reinforce the pain of difference. Hodge’s message is to reaffirm and recount stories of fortitude and resilience among her mother’s song lines. Her grandmother’s stories of love and commitment, continuity and belonging reinforce the uniqueness of a culture that has deep roots in their ancestral being. It is the love of her nanna who encourages her to write and share her stories, which helps her write herself into the landscape, to cherish legends that link people to place and the need to challenge stereotypes that perpetuate injustice.

‘The Red Plastic Chair is a Vietnamese Cultural Institution and My Anchor’ = Amy Duong includes personal recounts about her life experience with the perspective of being a daughter of Vietnamese migrants. Duong uses the ‘red plastic chair’ to structure her reflections. It functions as an extended metaphor from which she explores her multi-layered experience of migration. Her piece provides an example of ‘how items of cultural, historical, or nostalgic value can be used to explore personal journeys’ and broaden the significance of one’s insights. Milestones and turning points provide a springboard from which to reflect upon lifestyles and goals. They provide a chance to reset the meter and change course or to renew and refine one’s views and values. The death of her Aunty provides a chance for Amy Duong to reflect upon her cultural roots and examine the gulf between the younger generation and their elders. While she explores her sense of shame and feelings of unworthiness, the Aunt’s funeral and the mourners, each with their ‘red plastic chair’, provides a chance to reconnect with her roots. While she is emotionally challenged by her Vietnamese linguistic incompetence, there is still a sense that the language of love unites. In the end Duong comes to appreciate the sacrifices made by her relatives and the thought she should have been more grateful to them and not create a chasm within her family.

‘Walter’s speech’ (part 1, The Inheritance) = Matthew Lopez has a heightened consciousness of belonging to a generation of gay men who have lived through a sea change with his cohort seeing greyness as secretive and shameful. Lopez shows that for gay men, embracing one’s sexuality also involves loss and grief which the play reveals a silent and ongoing sense of trauma caused by the AIDs pandemic. ‘The Inheritance’ is a 2-part epic which gives a glimpse into gay life in New York, two decades after the height of the AIDs epidemic. Walter’s speech ruminates on homophobic attitudes to LGBTQI+ couples and the debilitating consequences of the AIDs virus. Lopez uses the pear tree as an extended metaphor that takes on special significance in Walter’s monologue as does the secluded setting which adds to the emotional significance of his defiance. Like the other authors who suggest that younger generations can learn about the journeys of trailblazers, Walter defends and extols the virtues and resilience of couples during the AIDs epidemic in the 1980’s. By the end of the play Lopez suggests that, despite the current political darkness, a future exists in which gay men will still be free to be themselves. His characters consider how one moves forward and puts the world back together after a calamity and the hope that the younger generation sees the future in a much more positive frame of mind that their predecessors.

All Resources created by Online Tutoring using Zoom for Mainstream English Students in the Victorian VCE Curriculum

Creating Texts Frameworks Writing about Protest AOS2 Unit 3 Year 12 VCE

This Resource is for students in Year 12 studying Frameworks Writing about Protest in AOS2: Unit 3 Creating Texts, in the Victorian VCE 2024 Mainstream English Curriculum

Introduction to Protest

To ‘protest’ means ‘to express disapproval of’ or ‘to commit an action of dissent’. To literally stand up and be counted is to say ‘no’ or defy an order or a demand that seems unfair, unjust, or unreasonable. While protesting may begin as a personal struggle against an unjust law it invariably leads to a collective struggle as the individual is caught up in a cause beyond themselves.

According to Amnesty International, ‘everyone has the right to protest, the power to fight for justice and make a difference’.

There are 4 Protest Mentor Texts:

  1. ‘On the Sydney Mardi Gras March of 1978 by Mark Gillespie
  2. ‘Freedom or Death’ speech by Emmeline Pankhurst
  3. ‘Harrison Bergeron’ short novel by Kurt Vonnegut
  4. ‘Monologue from City of Gold’ by Meyne Wyatt

At the heart of these narratives is not just the right to protest against unfair laws and conditions as individuals push for inclusion and diversity. These authors reveal the difficulties encountered in a two-way struggle between those in positions of power who would seek to deny people their freedoms and individuals who demand their rights to seek to voice their human rights.


2 written essay text pieces of writing considering audience, purpose and form = 20 marks each plus a commentary reflecting on the writing process

Themes in the Protest Mentor Texts
Demand for human rightsCivil rightsAgainst unjust laws
Abuse of powerFor social changeAgainst war
Rights for womenRights for LGBTQI+Against racism
Black lives matterBlack deaths in custodyRacial profiling

Record your Writing Process in a Journal

Students must use the mentor texts as a basis from which to explore and experiment with different text types, modes, and scenarios. Students must keep a journal in which to record their writing process and evaluate their thoughts and feelings documenting deliberate choices they have made in constructing their writing pieces.

Reflective Commentary

The reflective commentary will discuss the writing process and choices made during the process including purpose and audience of the response / form and genre / language features / impact of mentor texts on your writing / drafting and editing process and the role of feedback in shaping your decisions.

All Resources created by Online Tutoring using Zoom for Mainstream English Students in the Victorian VCE Curriculum

Personal Response Essay Plan Only for The Dark Knight the Moral Conflict of Batman

This Resource is for students Studying ‘The Dark Knight’ as a Personal Text Response for Year 11 VCE Curriculum AOS1 Reading & Exploring Texts

Prompt:  “It’s what you do that defines you”. (quote Batman) In the film ‘The Dark Knight’, is Bruce Wayne a moral philosopher?

Define words = moral = ethical/good/honest/decent

philosopher = truth seeker / seeker of justice

Analytical Essay Structure Using TEEL+ Personal Response =

  1. Introduction = Context / Main Contention / Main points / Message of Director / Personal View
  2. Body Paragraph 1 = Topic Sentence / 1st main point / evidence / explanation / personal view & values / link back to topic & message of Director
  3. Body Paragraph 2 = Topic Sentence / 2nd main point / evidence / explanation / personal view & values / link back to topic & message of Director
  4. Body Paragraph 3 = Topic Sentence / 3rd main point / evidence / explanation / personal view & values / link back to topic & message of Director
  5. Conclusion = Briefly restate Main Contention / Personal view & values / Message of Director

Director Christopher Nolan explores a number of moral and ethical questions in his film ‘The Dark Knight’ that highlight the humanity and fallibility of the ‘superhero’ myth ‘Batman’ placing his actions under scrutiny. At critical moments in the film, and as a result of his humanity, Batman must choose between two negative outcomes, that places his moral belief system under pressure. When Batman makes decisions, he must discard some values in favour of others, and in the process, he reveals his personal moral code that ‘it’s not what you do that defines you’. His approach to crime also places the superhero’s morality in the hands of his enemies, leading Batman to make troubling decisions as he attempts to stop the villains. I consider the film shows that Bruce Wayne is a moral philosopher because what differentiates him from the villains of Gotham is through his belief in the city’s potential for good, a belief which all of his enemies have abandoned.

Body Paragraph 1 = Background / Who or what causes problems

Focus on = background to Bruce Wayne & Batman’s life / Batman does not have superhuman powers like Superman / he is really only a man / leading a double life takes commitment / cardinal rule never to kill his enemies / the film asks what is the cost of human life? / When is it acceptable to compromise principles in society in order to survive a clear and present danger? / are people basically good or evil? / is it worth being good? / personal response – the film reflects the moral complexity of our own society

Body Paragraph 2 = Response / how do individuals or groups respond to problems

Focus on = moral and ethical choices / save the life of his love Rachel or crime fighting DA Harvey Dent / Batman has to choose and eventually loses both Rachel and Dent as a result of his limitations / Gotham City is in a moral and physical crisis / Rachel says ‘this city is rotting’ /the Joker attempts to dismantle and destroy societal moral codes / Batman must decide whether to save the Joker as he falls off the building’s edge / Batman could justify the Joker’s death as self-defence / yet he chooses to save the falling villain at the last moment – personal response – Batman faces the Joker’s biggest test – he does not kill him – he chooses not break his one rule never kill his enemy

Body Paragraph 3 = Consequences / Legacy for society and individuals

Focus on = does the end justify the means? / Should Batman lie in order to sacrifice himself for Dent’s reputation? / Batman is the hero Gotham deserves he is not the hero they need / sometimes truth isn’t good enough, sometimes people deserve more / Batman must face the consequences of his actions as the result of his humanity / personal response – in this way believes in the potential of Gotham’s citizens, he refuses to abandon them to crime and despair and hopes for a brighter future for Gotham

All Resources created by Online Tutoring using Zoom for Mainstream English Students in the Victorian VCE Curriculum

The Dark Knight Directed by Christoper Nolan Basic Notes

This Resource is for students Studying ‘The Dark Knight’ for Year 11 VCE Curriculum AOS1 Reading & Exploring Texts


‘The Dark Knight’ is not a simplistic tale of good and evil. Batman is good, yes, The Joker is evil, yes. However, Batman poses a more complex puzzle than usual: The citizens of Gotham City are in an uproar, calling him a vigilante and blaming him for the deaths of policemen and others. Significantly, the Joker is more than a villain. He is a Mephistopheles [an evil spirit who has sold his soul] whose actions are fiendishly designed to pose moral dilemmas for his enemies.

The plot involves the Joker’s attempts to humiliate the forces for good and expose Batman’ secret identity, showing him to be a poser and a fraud. He includes James Gordon and Harvey Dent on his target list. He contrives cruel tricks to play with the fact that Bruce Wayne once loved, and Harvey Dent now loves, Assistant D.A. Rachel Dawes. His tricks are crueller than he realizes, because the Joker does not know Batman’s identity. The Joker’s ghoulish appearance with a cackling laugh is driven by the belief humanity is inherently evil and any attempts at maintaining order or morality is a ‘bad joke’. Again, he underestimates Batman’s role as a symbol of justice and protector of Gotham City. Both sides are forced to make quick-witted decisions in order to stop the opposing vigilante from doing his desired work.

Good Versus Evil

‘The Dark Knight’focuses on the moral and ethical battles faced by the central characters, and the compromises they make to defeat the Joker under extraordinary circumstances. The Joker forces impossible ethical decisions on each character to test the limits of their morality. The Batman represents order to the Joker’s chaos and is brought to his own limit but avoids completely compromising himself. Harvey Dent represents goodness and hope; he is the city’s ‘white knight’ who is ‘pure’ of intent and can operate within the law. Dent is motivated to do good because he identifies himself as good, not through trauma like the Batman, and has faith in the legal system.

While the Joker corrupted Harvey Dent ‘the white knight’, Batman is willing to take the blame for the murders that Dent committed as ‘Two-Face’ so Gotham City will stay peaceful. Gordon tells his son Jimmy that although Dent was ‘the hero that Gotham needed’, ‘Batman is the hero that Gotham deserves’. In the end, Batman is still ‘a silent guardian, a watchful protector, a dark night’.

The Dark Knight Literary Elements


Christopher Nolan

Leading Actors

Christian Bale and Heath Ledger

Supporting Actors/Actresses

Michael Caine, Maggie Gyllenhaal, Gary Oldman, Morgan Freeman and Aaron Eckhart


Superhero, Action, Thriller

Date of Release

July 18th, 2008


Emma Thomas, Charles Roven, and Christopher Nolan

Setting and Context

Gotham City, present day, after the events of Batman Begins

Tone and Mood

Dark, thrilling, brooding, philosophical.

Protagonist and Antagonist

Batman vs. The Joker

Major Conflict

Batman is trying to clean up Gotham while also fighting with the supervillain and agent of chaos, the Joker. He is also conflicted about whether to give up the identity of Batman and pursue a normal life.


Batman catching the Joker and then Batman killing Two-Face.


Joker foreshadows many of the evil things he will do with odd asides. Harvey Dent’s corruption is foreshadowed by his observation that heroes either die young or live to see themselves turn into villains.


At the start of the film, the power and influence of the Joker is constantly understated.


Allusions to philosophy and to the comic books on which the film is based.


The Joker is insane and chaotic, but also always two steps ahead, and thus, extremely methodical

Summary of the Plot

The criminals of Gotham City are running scared, because Batman is keeping the good citizens of Gotham safe. The film opens with a gang of men wearing clown masks breaking into the bank where the mob keeps much of their money. The mastermind of the heist is someone named the Joker. At the end of the heist, Joker arrives and puts a grenade in the mouth of the bank manager.

Unaware of the Joker’s presence in their city, Batman and the new DA, Harvey Dent, are working alongside Lieutenant Gordon to put the last of the mob’s money-laundering enterprises out of business once and for all. They believe they have definitively stopped the laundering and crime in the city—until the Joker shows up to sow chaos. Joker assassinates a judge, plants a bomb in a hospital and blows it up, and starts knocking off innocent people in Gotham one by one until Batman reveals his identity.

Batman is determined to fight back against the Joker. For a while, it seems as though he is maintaining the upper hand, until his best friend Rachel, who also happens to be Harvey Dent’s girlfriend, is killed in the crossfire. When half of Harvey Dent’s face gets burned in an explosion, the Joker brings him over to the dark side, encouraging him to seek vengeance for Rachel’s death. Harvey adopts a new name, Two-Face, and Batman finds himself with two madmen to contend with as the destruction of Gotham looms large.

The Joker has clearly been planning his takeover of Gotham for quite some time, and seems to be at least two steps ahead of Batman at every turn. After releasing a threat to the entire city of Gotham, he commandeers two ferries and fills one with citizens and one with convicted criminals. He also fills both ferries with explosives. He gives each boat a master detonator that will explode the other ferry. If nobody detonates the other boat by midnight, he says, he will blow up both boats. Batman is eventually able to subdue the evil clown and none of the passengers on the ferries are harmed.

Harvey is still on the Joker’s side, something that Batman did not realize in his haste to take down the Joker himself. While Batman has been confronting Joker, Gordon learns that his family has been taken hostage by Two-Face. When Gordon goes to save them, Two-Face knocks Gordon to the ground, then grabs his little boy, Jimmy, planning on flipping a coin to decide the boy’s fate by chance. Suddenly, Batman arrives and orders him to stop, telling him that he is blaming the wrong people for Rachel’s death. Two-Face then flips the coin for Batman. It lands dirty side up, so he shoots him. He flips it for himself. It lands clean side up. Then he resumes with his original plan and flips it for little Jimmy. In the definitive moment, Batman gets up and tackles Two-Face, knocking him over a ledge.

Batman bemoans the fact that the Joker still won because he corrupted Harvey Dent, split up their alliance for good, and destroyed one of the best people in Gotham. If the people of Gotham ever discovered the wrongs that Two-Face has done, Gotham’s future will be compromised. Thus, Batman decides to take the blame for the murders that Dent committed as Two-Face, so that the Joker can’t win and the city will stay peaceful.

Gordon is seen destroying the Bat symbol above the MCU building and then begins to chase Batman, who runs. Gordon tells his son that although Dent was the hero that Gotham needed, Batman is the hero that Gotham deserves. A manhunt is issued for Batman and he speeds away in his Batpod. Gordon declares, “He’s a silent guardian. A watchful protector. A Dark Knight.”

Justice versus corruptionBearing the burden as sacrificial heroLoss of love
Chaos & destructionHuman nature is essentially goodChance
Terrorism & escalationMorality & ethicsGood versus evil
Symbols & Motifs
Social experimentsMakeupTwo-Face
Joker cardBatmanHarvey as ‘the white knight’ symbol of good
Bruce is BatmanHarvey says he is BatmanRachel’s death
Joker’s scars  
Burning moneyJoker himselfTwo-Face
The Dark Knight  

All Resources created by Online Tutoring using Zoom for Mainstream English Students in the Victorian VCE Curriculum

The Dark Night Personal Text Response

This Resource is for students Studying ‘The Dark Knight’ as a Personal Text Response for Year 11 VCE Curriculum AOS1 Reading & Exploring Texts

Questions to ask about how the text resonates with student’s own memories and life experiences:

  • What aspects of your own experiences reflect the experiences of the characters in the text?
  • Have you experienced any major life events that reflect key moments in the plot?
  • What are your values and ideas about the world, and how do they compare with those presented in the text?
  • Can you draw parallels with your own observations of the world as represented in the text?
  • Can you compare the cultural, social, and historical values embedded in the text and compare these with your own values?

Connections to The Dark Knight

  • The Dark Knight creates a chaotic tale of struggling with human limits against terror – taps into fear of global terror – terrorists rely on fear to maintain their power
  • When Batman stands in the burning rubble – there are horrific parallels to images of ‘ground zero’ after the September 11 terrorist attacks on the twin towers in New York & the War on Terror
  • The Joker is a fantasy version of a terrorist, he has no clear political ideology but he wants to impart chaos, destruction, and fear on Gotham City
  • Batman is part of a fantasy story – a costumed crime fighter –he can be considered on a deeper level as an authority figure who needs to maintain control over various evil groups such as real-world terrorists and terrorism groups
  • Harvey Dent was a hero ‘white knight’ but turns into a revenge bent criminal ‘Two-Face’ – the film shows how seemingly normal good people can turn into terrorists if given the right motive
  • Batman is in a morally uncertain middle ground when he ponders his failure against the Joker – he questions how far must he go in order to defeat such overwhelming forces of evil
  • The Joker killing Rachel Dawes and scarring Harvey Dent leads Batman down a morally questionable path – how does Batman reconcile his own humanity with his impulse for violent retribution against the Joker?
  • Is phone surveillance of Gotham City by techno expert Lucius Fox a real-life security concern? – it gives Batman power to listen in on every conversation in Gotham
  • The film questions the morals of people like Batman who has chosen to cross all ethical lines – is Batman morally compromised, a vigilante rather than good guy fighting evil?
  • If extraordinary circumstances are needed to control terrorists – what part of ourselves do we lose when we choose to take immoral steps to stop the villains?
  • Christopher Nolan’s film provides critical questions about fear of terrorism and also what governments do regarding threats – is war the answer against terrorists?

All Resources created by Online Tutoring using Zoom for Mainstream English Students in the Victorian VCE Curriculum