Analysing Argument Year 12 Quick Revision for Written Texts

This Resource is for Mainstream English Year 12 Students studying Unit 4, AOS 2 Analysing Argument Written Text.


(1)    What is the argument the author is making?

(2)    How are the techniques used by the author & the language around arguments?

(3)    Why does this technique & language affect the audience? The author’s intention to make audience do something:

  • Think something – logos – appeals to logic, research, graphs, reputable people as evidence
  • Feel something – pathos – emotional response, idioms, cliches, attacks or praises, emotive language rhetorical questions
  • Do something – ethos – act ethically & responsibly – call to action for the readers to actively get involved in the issue

Written Text Article Analysis = How to start annotating

  • Begin at the top of the article and analyse it in a chronological order
  • Look at the big picture [context] and how it may have wider considerations for the author’s arguments
  • Look at the language around the arguments and how the author transitions tone and language to examine the arguments
  • Do not forget all the visuals [including banners on top of websites or podcasts] and how they are relevant to the written text
  • Essay start of the document is called the ‘opening strategy’ / middle is called ‘the body strategy’ and the end is called ‘the closing strategy’
  • Include a brief conclusion how the author used language to persuade the audience


There is an ongoing debate about xxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Context) In response to the issue is an [text form = opinion piece/letter to the Editor/Editorial/Podcast] by xxxxxxxxxx titled “xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx” published on [date] xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx by the [source] xxxxxxxxxxxx (Author/Title/Source) [The author’s name] contends in a xxxxxxxx tone, that xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Tone/Contention). Her/His [text form] targets xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx positioning her/his audience with [type of language], transitioning from [example pathos to logos] (Audience). She/He bases her/his appeals to xxxxxx with “quote phrase” to stress the importance of xxxxxxxxxxxxx (Intention). The accompanying [visual form = photograph/cartoon] of xxxxxxxxxxxxx by [name of cartoonist or title of photograph] signals xxxxxxxxxxxx and endorses [author’s name] contention that xxxxxxxxx with the intention to xxxxxxxxxxxx (Visual/Intention)

All Resources created by Online Tutoring using Zoom for Mainstream English Students in the Victorian VCE Curriculum

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