Macbeth

Historical Context of Macbeth

Macbeth was written in 1606 by popular English playright William Shakespeare.  It is believed to have been performed during the reign of King James 1 as the play reflects James 1 interests and obsessions.  Politically the play has marked relevance to the reign of James 1 as it is about treason and the betrayal of a legitimate monarch.

Shakespearean Drama is Multi-Dimensional

Macbeth can be seen and taken in many ways and many levels.  It seems a simple story with a moral that crime does not pay, the goodies win in the end.  It can also be seen as a thriller with evil at every turn. The witches assist the audience in displaying the idea that the play has supernatural evil in it.  They are malicious, gossipying and spreading rumours and yet terrifying because we consider that there might be a supernatural consciousness within the play.  All the imagery of darkness has a subliminal point.  This dark play dramatises the wilful disrupting of harmony and paints a bleak picture of what happens when that is undone.  Disorder, and its political equivalent, tyranny, can only lead to suffering and unhappiness.  In Macbeth, the nightmare continues until the evil-doer who has disordered nature is despatched.  Then harmony is restored.

The Divine Right of Kings, Order versus Disorder and the Chaos Theory

As a classical drama the play has a strong moral element to it.  The natural order in the play is broken by Macbeth’s actions.  Elizabethans believed that God alone was responsible for the appointment of a person to kingship.  Therefore any attempt to remove a king was a crime against human nature and a crime against God that would result in chaos.  Killing a good king and usurping his throne throws up the forces of darkness and disorder.  Macbeth breaks the cosmic pattern and unnatural acts follow.  Elizabethans believed also that disorder and chaos were symbols of evil so that the order of the universe is disrupted by evil deeds (Act 2.4:10-13).  The doctor says of Lady Macbeth’s illness ‘Unnatural deeds / Do breed unnatural troubles’ (Act 4.2:75).

Genre, Structure and Style of Macbeth

Macbeth is an Elizabethan tragedy in 5 acts written in blank verse.  Generally the most important note in approaching Macbeth is that it is a tragedy.  Macbeth is set in the wild Scottish Highlands.  The murders occur at night and often during storms.  The witches are found on a barren, wind-swept heath (moorland).

The main conventions Elizabethan audiences expected in a play was:

  • 5 acts with little or no scenery
  • themes such as love, jealousy, greed, ambition, the divine right of kings and the supernatural
  • noble characters (using blank verse) and submissive characters (using prose)
  • lots of conflict
  • chaos, sword fighting and possible deaths
  • resolution of conflict and re-establishment of the order at the end of the play

The main conventions / perspectives of Macbeth are similar to the conventions expected by Elizabethan audiences:

  • Macbeth butchers an old king (Duncan) in his sleep, murders 2 servants, orders assassinations of the wife and child of his enemy and is still seen as a tragic hero
  • How did Shakespeare make Macbeth a tragic hero?  He did so by giving Macbeth a conscience and making him suffer guilt
  • Macbeth is an exploration of ambition and evil
  • The protagonist, Macbeth is not alone in his fatal ambition.  Lady Macbeth is equally to blame
  • Are the supernatural powers responsible for Macbeth’s fate?

Language of Macbeth

Shakespeare’s language is complex and rich in colour and meaning.  Shakespeare used dramatic irony in Macbeth where one scene, event or line contrasts sharply with another.  For example Duncan’s line “he was a gentleman on whom I built an absolute trust” is immediately followed by the stage direction ‘Enter Macbeth’ (Act 1.4:13-14).  The audience has only moments ago seen Macbeth thinking of murdering Duncan.

Shakespeare also uses verbal irony (that is saying one thing but meaning another).  For example when Macbeth says to Banquo “Fail not our feast” (Act 3.1:29), knowing that Banquo will never arrive, because he will be murdered by Macbeth’s hired killers.  The audience already knows this but Banquo does not.

 The Plot of Macbeth Simplified

  1. Witches’ prophesy
  2. Macbeth and Banquo return from battle – witches’ prophesy
  3. Duncan murdered
  4. Malcolm flees
  5. Banquo murdered
  6. Fleance flees
  7. Dinner party – Banquo’s ghost
  8. Witches’ prophesy
  9. Macduff’s wife and children murdered
  10. Malcolm and Macduff raise army
  11. Lady Macbeth descends into madness
  12. Camouflage in ‘woods of Birnam’
  13. Lady Macbeth suicides
  14. Macbeth is slain by Macduff

Themes of Macbeth

  1. Ambition: The main theme being central to the play is Macbeth’s ‘vaulting ambition’ that leads him to murder and his own self-destruction. Macbeth says he possesses “Vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself / And falls on the other (Act I, Scene 7).  While Macbeth is a Scottish general who is not inclined to commit evil deeds, he deeply desires power and advancement.  He kills Duncan against his better judgment and afterward stews in guilt and paranoia.  Toward the end of the play he descends into a kind of frantic, boastful madness.  The real driving force behind Macbeth’s ambition is Lady Macbeth.  She pursues her goals with great determination as she urges Macbeth on to murder Duncan.  Yet she is less capable of withstanding the repercussions of her immoral acts.  The problem, the play suggests, is that once one decides to use violence to further one’s quest for power, it is difficult to stop.
  2. The Tragedy of Pride: Linked with ambition above.  In all Greek tragedies the hero is a person whose basic nature is good, but who, through some fatal flaw, falls from his state of grace.  The most common of these tragic flaws in classical literature was pride.  Macbeth represents the terrible temptation of taking advantage of someone else for gain, commiting a wrong act simply because it suits him.  Macbeth understands at the end that what he has done is wrong and it has ruined him.
  3. Good versus Evil and Supernatural: Macbeth depicts the dark side of human life with a profound vision of evil.  The supernatural theme enables evil to be explored via the witches and shown in Lady Macbeth when she calls on the dark forces to help her (Act 1.5:36-52).  Darkness permeates the play with the greater part of the action taking place in the murk of night.  We see a man (Macbeth) who conceives a goal (killing the king and seizing the throne), and who decides to pursue that goal at the expense of all other considerations. By seeing his own desire for power as the only thing of significance and abandoning notions of loyalty, legality and pity, he moves from humanity (the person he was at the outset of the play), to what he implies with his metaphor of ‘bear-like’, an animal, and what Malcolm eventually calls a ‘butcher’.  We can take the essence of the play to heart ie. the nature of evil and its fatal consequences, not only for the evil-doer but for all those whom he affects.
  4. The Corruption of Power Unchecked and ‘Kingly Virtues’:  Malcolm describes what a ruler ought to be “The king-becoming graces / As justice, verity [truth], temp’rance, stableness / Bounty [generosity], perserverance, mercy, lowliness / Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude …”  This scene establishes what are the desirable qualities of good leaders but in the play Macbeth represents all that a ruler should not be.  Macbeth’s nature is clearly defined as his selfish desire to ‘climb up’ and take what is not rightfully his by any means, an immoral motive that brings him down.  In contrast, the ‘good’ kings are seen to be motivated by nobility of mind and loyalty to their people.
  5. The Relationship between Cruelty and Masculinity: Characters in Macbeth frequently dwell on issues of gender.  Lady Macbeth manipulates her husband by questioning his manhood equating masculinity with naked aggression.  The problem of misogyny centres on two damning portraits of feminine evil – Lady Macbeth and the witches.  Can Macbeth be excused of his wrong decisions because he was seduced into evil by women?  The aggression of the female characters in the play is striking because it goes against prevailing expectations of how women ought to behave.  Lady Macbeth’s behaviour certainly shows that women can be as ambitious and cruel as men.

Motifs of Macbeth

  1. Hallucinations: Visions and hallucinations recur throughout the play and serve as reminders of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s joint culpability for the growing body count.  When he is about to kill Duncan, Macbeth sees a dagger floating in the air.  Covered with blood and pointed toward the king’s chamber, the dagger represents the bloody course on which Macbeth is about to embark.  Later, he sees Banquo’s ghost sitting in a chair at a feast, pricking his conscience by mutely reminding him that he murdered his former friend.  The seemingly hardheaded Lady Macbeth also eventually gives way to visions, as she sleepwalks and believes that her hands are stained with blood that cannot be washed away by any amount of water.  In each case, it is ambiguous whether the vision is real or purely hallucinatory; but, in both cases, the Macbeths read them uniformly as supernautural signs of their guilt.
  2. Violence: Macbeth is a famously violent play.  Interestingly, most of the killings take place offstage, but throughout the play the characters provide the audience with gory descriptions of the carnage, from the opening scene where the captain describes Macbeth and Banquo wading in blood on the battlefield, to the endless references to the bloodstained hands of Macbeth and his wife.  The action is bookended by a pair of bloody battles: in the first, Macbeth defeats the invaders, in the second, he is slain and beheaded by Macduff.  In between is a series of murders: Duncan, Duncan’s chamberlains, Banquo, Lady Macduff and Macduff’s son all come to bloody ends.  By the end of the action, blood seems to be everywhere.
  3. Prophecy: Prophecy sets Macbeth’s plot in motion – namely, the witches’ prophecy that Macbeth will become first thane of Cawdor and then King.  The weird sisters make a number of other prophecies: they tell us that Banquo’s heirs will be kings, that macbeth should beware Macduff, that Macbeth is safe till Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane, and that no man born of woman can harm Macbeth.  Save for the prophecy about Banquo’s heirs, all of these predictions are fulfilled within the course of the play.  Still, it is left deliberately ambigous whether some of them are self-fulfilling – for example, whether Macbeth wills himself to be king or is fated to be king.  Additionally, as the Birnam Wood and “born of woman” prophecies make clear, the prophecies must be interpreted as riddles, since they do not always mean what they seem to mean.

Symbols of Macbeth

  1. Blood: Blood is everywhere in Macbeth, beginning with the opening battle between the Scots and the Norwegian invaders, which is described in harrowing terms by the wounded captain in Act 1, scene 2.  Once Macbeth and Lady Macbeth embark upon their murderous journey, blood comes to symbolise their guilt, and they begin to feel that their crimes have stained them in a way that cannot be washed clean.  “Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood / Clean from my hand?”  Macbeth cries after he has killed Duncan, even as his wife scolds him and says that a little water will do the job.  Later, though, she comes to share his horrified sense of being stained “Out, damned spot; out, I say … who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him?”  she asks as she wanders through the halls of their castle near the close of the play.  Blood symbolises the guilt that sits like a permanent stain on the consciences of both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, one that hounds them to their graves.
  2. The Weather: As in other Shakespearean tragedies, Macbeth’s grotesque murder spree is accompanied by a number of unnatural occurrences in the natural realm.  From the thunder and lightening that accompany the witches’ appearances to the terrible storms that rage on the night of Duncan’s murder, these violations of the natural order reflect corruption in the moral and political orders.

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I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.

 

Grammar Guide for Students

A Grammar Guide for Students who find ‘Grammar’ Difficult to Understand

‘Grammar’ is not the scariest word in the English language.  It is not difficult either.  Your starting point is to use my Grammar Guide for Students to work through the main nine parts of speech.  Once you know the main nine parts of speech you have the Metalanguage you need to discuss your work grammatically.  Look at the nine parts of speech first and then follow on to combine that knowledge when you put words together to form sentences.

There are Nine parts of Speech:

  1.  Noun = Definition: The name of a person, place, animal, thing, quality or condition.  There are 4 types of nouns: (1) proper noun = always begin with a capital letter and name people, places and titles eg. Mr Jones, Melbourne.  (2) common noun = name general things around you eg. trees.  (3) collective nouns = name groups of people or collections of things eg. choir.  (4) abstract nouns = name emotions, states of being, qualities eg. love.
  2. Pronoun = Definition: A word that takes the place of a noun.  There are 2 main types of pronouns:  (1) personal pronouns = I, me, he, she, we, they, them.  (2) possessive pronouns = mine, my, his, hers, ours, theirs.
  3. Adjective = Definition: A word that adds meaning to a noun or pronoun eg. horrible Harold.
  4. Verb = Definition: doing, being and having words eg. jump, have, own.  Verbs made up of one word are called main verbs.  Verbs made up of two or more words are called complex or compound verbs eg. was reported.  Auxiliary verbs are am, are, is, was, were, being, would, may, might, must, had, can, could, shall, should, will, has, have did, does, do and been.
  5. Adverb = Definition: A word that adds meaning to a verb (or an adjective or another adverb) eg. slowly compose, run fast.
  6. Preposition = Definition: A word that links nouns and pronouns to another word in a sentence eg. to, over, underneath, across, beside, with, in, on, above, after, between.
  7. Conjunction = Definition: A word that connects or links various words or groups of words eg. because, since, although, whenever, and.
  8. Interjection = Definition: A word that expresses a feeling or attitude but has no grammatical function eg. great, cool, hey, wow.
  9. Article = Definition: There are two types of articles:  (1) indefinite article = a, an.  (2) definite article = the.

What are Sentences and Clauses in Grammar?

  1. A simple sentence in English is a group of words that has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.  A simple sentence has one clause beginning with a noun group called the subject.  The subject is the person or thing that the sentence is about.  This is followed by a verb group, which tells you what the subject is doing, or describes the subject’s situation.
  2. The verb group may be followed by another noun group, which is called the object.  The object is the person or thing affected by the action or situation.  After link verbs like ‘be’, ‘become’, ‘feel’ and ‘seem’, the verb group may be followed by a noun group or an adjective, called a complement.  The complement tells you more about the subject.
  3. The verb group, the object, or the complement can be followed by an adverb or a prepositional phrase, called an adverbial.  The adverbial tells you more about the action or situation, for example how, when, or where it happens.  Adverbials are also called adjuncts.
  4. A compound sentence has two or more main clauses, ie. clauses which are equally important.  You join them with ‘and’, ‘but’ and ‘or’.
  5. A complex sentence contains a subordinate clause and at least one main clause.  A subordinate clause gives information about a main clause, and is introduced by a conjunction such as ‘because’, ‘if’, ‘that’, or a ‘wh’ word eg. ‘who’.  Subordinate clauses can come before, after, or inside the main clause.

What is the Correct Word Order in a Sentence?

Using the correct word order is important in English because word order can change meaning.  The normal word order in an English sentence is as follows:

(1)Subject:We (2)Verb:watched (3)Object:a video (3)Place:at home (4)Time:last night

Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.

 

 

Persuasive Techniques in Language Analysis

Persuasive Techniques in Language Analysis are Biased

All persuasive texts are biased and all authors of persuasive texts use a combination of persuasive techniques and structure their argument to position their audience so that the audience agrees with their point of view.

Learn how to use Persuasive Techniques in Language Analysis

It is important to learn the types of persuasive techniques used by writers in language analysis and the effects of these techniques on the reader.

Follow my persuasive techniques, examples and effects table below to help you in Language Analysis:

  1. Technique = the writer uses the technique of establishing validity of viewpoint / Example = when the writer says “I have lived here all my life” / The Effect of this Technique = is to encourage the reader to regard his view as valid and worth consideration
  2. Technique = the writer uses the technique of appealing to our sense of nostalgia / Example = when the writer says “In all these years … many pleasant hours… “ / The Effect of this Technique = is to remind the reader of simple pleasures in life
  3. Technique = the writer uses the technique of mounting a scathing attack on an identifiable group / Example = when the writer says “Selfish, careless, unthinking parasites… “ / The Effect of this Technique = is to diminish any consideration the reader might have for other side of the argument, gains our sympathy, alignment
  4. Technique = the writer uses the technique of posing a rhetorical question / Example = when the writer says “Why should we be disadvantaged by the actions of others? “ / The Effect of this Technique = serves to align the reader with the writer’s point of view
  5. Technique = the writer uses the technique of appealing to our patriotism, nationalism / Example = when the writer says “This is an un-Australian, unacceptable thing to do “ / The Effect of this Technique = serves to make the reader agree with the writer through implied sense of shared value system, shared national understanding
  6. Technique = the writer uses the technique of a ‘call to arms’ / Example = when the writer says “It’s time, we must stand together “ / The Effect of this Technique = is to get the reader to align himself, get involved, feel proactive in effective positive or necessary change
  7. Technique = the writer uses the technique of proposing a solution / Example = when the writer says “There is an obvious solution to this “ / The Effect of this Technique = is to present the writer as willing to engage in proactive solution seeking rather than passive objections to other’s proposal
  8. Technique = the writer uses the technique of inclusive language, flattery, empathy / Example = when the writer says “We …. Us …. All Australians …. Our “ / The Effect of this Technique = is to include the reader, making the audience feel like an outsider if they don’t agree
  9. Technique = the writer uses the technique of using anecdotal evidence / Example = when the writer says “I’ve been there … “ / The Effect of this Technique = is to give the writer credibility and personalise the text
  10. Technique = the writer uses the technique of simplifying the issue/ Example = when the writer says “It all boils down to … ” “Really, it’s simply a matter of …” / The Effect of this Technique = is to bring the issue down to the level of the audience, so the audience is more likely to be persuaded if they are not confronted by a complex or difficult argument
  11. Technique = the writer uses the technique of including statistics or an expert opinion / Example = when the writer says “Studies show” or “Research indicated” or “60% of students admit they love homework” / The Effect of this Technique = is designed to reinforce the argument, give authority and credibility to the argument with figures such as percentages made to look impressive to the reader
  12. Technique = the writer uses the technique of Jargon ie. language specific to a particular discipline / Example = when the writer says “Any computer expert would understand the ramifications of bytes, CD-ROM and interactive programming “ / The Effect of this Technique = serves to portray the writer as intelligent, sophisticated and knowledgeable in the particular field, it can also make the reader feel intimidated by the superior knowledge of the writer
  13. Technique = the writer uses the technique of colloquialism ie. slang / Example = when the writer says “I’d rather hang out with my mates “ / The Effect of this Technique = serves to lighten the tone, bring the audience identification as the writer is seen as approachable ie. ‘one of us’
  14. Technique = the writer uses the technique of repetition of words and images / Example = when the writer says “Never had I felt so alone … never had I felt such despair … never would I forget “ / The Effect of this Technique = serves to reinforce a point, stressing its importance and impact, however, too much repetition can weaken an argument
  15. Technique = the writer uses the technique of appealing to a value system or ideology / Example = when the writer says “Clearly this is unacceptable behaviour”  “this is abhorrent and discriminatory” / The Effect of this Technique = sets up the writer as ethically, morally aware, thus trying to get the audience to aling themselves with his/her own viewpoint
  16. Technique = the writer uses the technique of alliteration / Example = when the writer says “Motor-mouth moggy” / The Effect of this Technique = is to make the words easy to remember by using words that begin with the same consonantal sound, this is commonly used by writers in headlines and titles
  17. Technique = the writer uses the technique of using humour, sarcasm, puns and satire / Example = when the writer says “Warne is king of spin “ / The Effect of this Technique = is to use humour to help persuade an audience, a pun is a play on words and has two meanings, often used in headlines and satire is making fun of serious content

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I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.

 

 

 

 

Word Choices

Word Choices are Important

Many students over-use simple words like bad, good, big, happy, nice, said, silly and many other words in essays.  There are alternative word choices to consider rather than the commonly over-used words.  The alternative word choices will give you more scope to develop your essay writing skills, stop you repeating the same simple words, and gain A+ for English.  The alternative word choices list below is similar to looking up words using the Thesaurus but I have done the work for you.

Here are Some Alternative Word Choices you can use in your essays:

  1. Bad is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: abominable / beastly / brutal / cruel / corrupt / detestable / disgusting / disobedient / evil / false / horrible / horrid / ill-behaved / malevolent / nasty / naughty / objectionable / rotten / unworthy / vicious / vile / wicked
  2. Big is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: ample / bloated / broad / bulky / capacious / colossal / considerable / corpulent / deep / cumbersome / enormous / extended / extensive / full / giant / gigantic / grand / great / huge / immense / inflated / large / lengthy / lofty / long / magnificent / mammoth / massive / mighty / spacious / stout / swollen / substantial / sizeable / significant / towering / important / vast / wide / whopping
  3. Scared is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: afraid / alarmed / anxious / apprehensive / cowardly / concerned / fretful / fearful / dismayed / distressed / nervous / panicky / startled / terrified / terror-stricken / timid / troubled / worried
  4. Good is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: able / accomplished / agreeable / beneficial / blameless / benevolent / capable / clever / competent / decent / delightful / enjoyable / excellent / fine / first-class / great / healthy / helpful / high quality / honest / just / moral / noble / pious / pleasant / pleasing / pure / reliable / respectable / safe / satisfactory / satisfying / serviceable / skilful / sound / splendid / suitable / superior / talented / true / trustworthy / upright / useful / valid / valuable / virtuous / worthy
  5. Happy is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: blissful / bright / cheerful / cherry / delighted / elated / exultant / ecstatic / content / contented / glad / gleeful / gratified / high-spirited / jovial / joyful / pleased
  6. Nice is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: amiable / attractive / beautiful / captivating / charming / comely / dainty / delicious / pleasant / good / kind / polite / fine / lovely / neat / pretty / tasteful / tasty / tidy / trim
  7. Said is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: accused / addressed / admitted / advised / agreed / alleged / announced / apologised / appealed / argued / asked / babbled / began / begged / believed / bellowed / blustered / bragged / breathed / cautioned / chuckled / commenced / complained / confessed / confided / congratulated / cried / decided / declared / groaned / denied / disputed / enquired / exclaimed / explained / hissed / howled / mumbled / murmured / objectived / praised / promised / proposal / protested / questioned / reasoned / recalled / rejoined / remarked / repeated / replied / revealed / roared / scoffed / scolded / screamed / screeched / shouted / shrieked / snapped / snarled / sniggered / snorted / sobbed / spoke / stammered / stated / stuttered / supposed / taunted / thundered / understood / wailed / warned / wept / wheezed / whined / whinged / whispered / yawned / yelled
  8. Silly is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: absurd / brainless / cretinous / foolish / idiotic / impractical / inane / laughable / ludicrous / moronic / ridiculous / stupid / unwise
  9. Small is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: brief / dwarfish / little / marginal / minimal / meagre / miniscule / minute / paltry / petty / scanty / short / shrivelled / shrunken / slight / slim / stunted / squat / thin / tiny / trifling / trivial
  10. Surprised is the commonly used word: Alternative Word Choices are: amazed / astonished / astounded / bewildered / confused / dazed / dumfounded / flabbergasted / overwhelmed / shocked / staggered / startled / stunned / taken aback

Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.

 

 

 

 

Connectives

What are Connectives?

Connectives are words and sometimes short phrases which we use to link or connect sentences, ideas and whole paragraphs together.

How are Connectives Used?

Connectives are used to:

  • introduce quotations
  • give an example or evidence in an essay
  • introduce an alternative point of view
  • add a contrasting example to your essay
  • enable your writing to be more balanced and objective

Connectives are Grouped According to Linking Ability and Used in Essays in the Following Format:

  1. Qualifying Connectives: although / unless / except / if / yet / as long as / apart from /  despite
  2. Cause and Effect Connectives: because / so / therefore / thus / consequently / stemming from this / as a result / an upshot of / hence
  3. Contrasting Connectives: whereas / alternatively / instead of / otherwise / unlike / on the other hand / in other respects / on the contrary
  4. Emphasising Connectives: above all / in particular / especially / significantly / indeed / notably / obviously / clearly
  5. Illustrating Connectives: for example / including / such as / for instance / as revealed by / in the case of / these include / as exemplified by
  6. Comparing Connectives: equally / similarly / in the same way / likewise / as with / in that respect
  7. Additional Connectives: and / also / as well as / moreover / too / in addition / additionally / furthermore
  8. Sequencing Connectives: firstly / secondly / lastly / next / then / finally / meanwhile
  9. Time Connectives: before / during / earlier / later / since / meanwhile / whenever / till / until / by the time / now / straightaway / already / afterwards / next time / hitherto
  10. Placing Connectives: on / inside / within / outside / throughout / near / beyond / among / below / to / beneath / from / towards / into / out of / off
  11. Listing Several Points Connectives: Firstly / To start with / To begin with / My first point / Secondly / Next / Furthermore / In addition / Thirdly / Adding to this / also / Further to this / Moreover / Finally / I would also like to make the point that / On top of / According to / One could also consider / To end with / To finish / Lastly / To sum up / In conclusion

Private Home Tutoring of English Not an On-Line Free Tutoring Service

I am NOT an on-line free tutoring service.  My resources on this website are for general use only.  I do not write student’s essays for them or give advice on essay prompts. However, for more intensive tutoring in a specific area of English, I will visit students in their own homes for private tutoring sessions that are paid on an hourly basis.